Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Toxicology, IIVS | Assays Eye Irritation Test
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Archive

Strategies for Eye Irritation Testing

September 17, 2018
Determination of ocular irritation potential is a key toxicological endpoint required to support chemical and raw material characterization and industrial hygiene, to guide product development, and to achieve final product safety standards.  IIVS possesses extensive experience with numerous test methods and testing strategies for commercial, industrial and regulatory applications.  From standard regulatory hazard assessments to providing information on the degree of ocular irritation, to discriminating among extremely mild eye area products, IIVS’ Study Directors take the time to understand your...

Webinar: How GLPs Enhance the Quality of Regulated and Non-Regulated Toxicology

October 18, 2016
This one-hour webinar, led by IIVS Director of Quality and Compliance, introduces some of the concepts of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) designed to promote study and data integrity within an in vitro toxicology framework. Applying these concepts within your own laboratory should aid in production of robust, repeatable studies. View Slides...

Cytosensor Microphysiometer

August 24, 2016
The Cytosensor Microphysiometer assay is an in vitro cellular toxicity test used to evaluate ocular irritancy. A microphysiometer is used to detect and monitor the extracellular changes in pH in L929 (mouse fibroblast) cells after exposure to a test material. Changes in the pH are caused by variations in the metabolic rate, measured indirectly as a function of changes in extracellular acidification. Metabolism in living cells is tightly coupled to cellular ATP usage and extracellular release of acidic byproducts such as protons, lactic...

Ocular Irritection (OIA)

August 24, 2016
The Ocular Irritection Assay is an in chemico eye irritation assay that detects, ranks, and predicts the corneal irritation potential of a test material. The assay assesses changes to the reagent solution (containing proteins, glycoproteins, lipids), which mimics the denaturation and disruption that occurs in corneal proteins in vivo. The test article is applied to a membrane disc that controls the delivery to the reagent solution. The changes in the protein structure are measured by optical density readings in the reagent...

CAMVA

August 24, 2016
The CAMVA is an in vitro assay that measures the presence and degree of vascular effect to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-day fertilized eggs following exposure to test article. After exposure, the CAM is examined visually for vascular hemorrhaging, capillary injection and/or ghost vessels at the test material application site. The concentration that elicits a positive response in 50% of the treated CAM specimens (RC50) indicates ocular irritation potential of a test material. Exposed CAM can also be evaluated for...

Short Time Exposure (STE, OECD 491)

August 24, 2016
The Short Time Exposure (STE) assay, developed by Kao Corporation (Japan), is an in vitro assay used to assess acute eye irritation potential as an alternative to the traditional in vivo Draize test.  The test method evaluates the cytotoxicity induced by a series of test chemical dilutions in a monolayer of rabbit corneal fibroblasts (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea – SIRC) after a single five-minute exposure. Two prediction models were initially developed for the STE assay — one categorizes the test material as...

Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP, OECD 437) with Optional Histology

August 24, 2016
The BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability) assay is an in vitro eye irritation test method developed by Gautheron et al. (1992), which uses living bovine corneal tissue, obtained as a by-product from abattoirs, to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of a test article. Types of injury caused by exposure to the test article are quantitatively measured by changes in opacity and permeability to fluorescein. The BCOP assay allows for the investigation of the mechanism of the damage caused. Corneal opacity...

Eye Irritation Time-to-Toxicity

August 24, 2016
The ocular irritation potential of formulations, products, ingredients, and chemicals can be evaluated using in vitro reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, such as the EpiOcular™ (MatTek Corp.) and SkinEthic HCE (EPISKIN) organotypic 3-D tissue constructs.  Whether evaluating ultra-mild cosmetics and personal care products, or rank ordering the irritation potential of candidate formulations and ingredients, we can provide custom Ocular Screening protocols to best meet your testing goals. The Ocular Screening protocols use a time-to-toxicity procedure to determine the test material...

Next Generation Tobacco Products

August 24, 2016
IIVS has a long-standing history of working with various industries to help establish or utilize in vitro models for the prediction of risk and the assessment of products under development. With the Food and Drug Administration extending its authority to all tobacco products (including e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah) the tobacco industry is faced with the task of assessing product safety for product development and regulatory submission. Further, the manufacture of tobacco products may entail risk to workers that come in...

Cosmetics & Personal Care

August 24, 2016
European legislation and US research activities towards ‘21st century toxicology’ are setting the standards for animal-free toxicological assessments and the cosmetics industry has been the first to feel the effects. As per EU Regulation 1223/2009, animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and finished products is currently banned in the EU, as is the marketing of finished cosmetic products and the ingredients contained therein which were tested on animals for cosmetic safety assessment purposes. These bans hold irrespective of the availability of validated...