Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Toxicology, IIVS | Assays Ocular Screening
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Archive

Strategies for Eye Irritation Testing

September 17, 2018
Determination of ocular irritation potential is a key toxicological endpoint required to support chemical and raw material characterization and industrial hygiene, to guide product development, and to achieve final product safety standards.  IIVS possesses extensive experience with numerous test methods and testing strategies for commercial, industrial and regulatory applications.  From standard regulatory hazard assessments to providing information on the degree of ocular irritation, to discriminating among extremely mild eye area products, IIVS’ Study Directors take the time to understand your...

Modernization of EPA “6-Pack” of Acute Toxicity Tests Continues

July 26, 2018
The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) continues to drive significant efforts in the United States to modernize the battery of acute toxicity tests classically known as the “6-pack.” Known for many years as an “all in vivo” testing strategy for products registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the 6-pack was revised in 2015 to include non-animal (in vitro/ex vivo) test methods for classification and labeling for Eye Irritation, both for commonly used household cleaning products...

Webinar: How GLPs Enhance the Quality of Regulated and Non-Regulated Toxicology

October 18, 2016
This one-hour webinar, led by IIVS Director of Quality and Compliance, introduces some of the concepts of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) designed to promote study and data integrity within an in vitro toxicology framework. Applying these concepts within your own laboratory should aid in production of robust, repeatable studies. View Slides...

Cytosensor Microphysiometer

August 24, 2016
The Cytosensor Microphysiometer assay is an in vitro cellular toxicity test used to evaluate ocular irritancy. A microphysiometer is used to detect and monitor the extracellular changes in pH in L929 (mouse fibroblast) cells after exposure to a test material. Changes in the pH are caused by variations in the metabolic rate, measured indirectly as a function of changes in extracellular acidification. Metabolism in living cells is tightly coupled to cellular ATP usage and extracellular release of acidic byproducts such as protons, lactic...

Ocular Irritection (OIA)

August 24, 2016
The Ocular Irritection Assay is an in chemico eye irritation assay that detects, ranks, and predicts the corneal irritation potential of a test material. The assay assesses changes to the reagent solution (containing proteins, glycoproteins, lipids), which mimics the denaturation and disruption that occurs in corneal proteins in vivo. The test article is applied to a membrane disc that controls the delivery to the reagent solution. The changes in the protein structure are measured by optical density readings in the reagent...

CAMVA

August 24, 2016
The CAMVA is an in vitro assay that measures the presence and degree of vascular effect to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-day fertilized eggs following exposure to test article. After exposure, the CAM is examined visually for vascular hemorrhaging, capillary injection and/or ghost vessels at the test material application site. The concentration that elicits a positive response in 50% of the treated CAM specimens (RC50) indicates ocular irritation potential of a test material. Exposed CAM can also be evaluated for...

Eye Irritation Test (EIT, OECD 492)

August 24, 2016
The Eye Irritation Test (EIT) is an OECD-approved in vitro non-animal test method for identifying chemicals and mixtures that may be irritating to the corneal epithelium.. The test method utilizes an in vitro reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) model (EpiOcular™, MatTek Corp.), in an acute exposure assay to support international regulatory labeling requirements, according to the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS). The Eye Irritation Test can be used to support European Cosmetics dossier...

Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (OECD 437) & Histology

August 24, 2016
The BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability) assay is an in vitro eye irritation test method developed by Gautheron et al. (1992), which uses living bovine corneal tissue, obtained as a by-product from abattoirs, to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of a test article. Types of injury caused by exposure to the test article are quantitatively measured by changes in opacity and permeability to fluorescein. The BCOP assay allows for the investigation of the mechanism of the damage caused. Corneal opacity...

Household & Cleaning Products

August 24, 2016
The majority of the products manufactured or sold by the Household and Cleaning Products industry are subject to the requirements of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) which mandates that the product have appropriate safety labeling. The FHSA does not specifically require animal testing be conducted to determine if a hazard is present, but historically many companies have used animal testing for this purpose – and have continued to do so because of lack of familiarity with newer, non-animal  methods. IIVS...

Cosmetics & Personal Care

August 24, 2016
European legislation and US research activities towards ‘21st century toxicology’ are setting the standards for animal-free toxicological assessments and the cosmetics industry has been the first to feel the effects. As per EU Regulation 1223/2009, animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and finished products is currently banned in the EU, as is the marketing of finished cosmetic products and the ingredients contained therein which were tested on animals for cosmetic safety assessment purposes. These bans hold irrespective of the availability of validated...