IIVS | Assays DPRA
86
archive,tax-assay,term-dpra,term-86,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode_grid_1300,footer_responsive_adv,hide_top_bar_on_mobile_header,qode-content-sidebar-responsive,qode-child-theme-ver-,qode-theme-ver-11.0,qode-theme-bridge,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-4.11.2.1,vc_responsive

Archive

Webinar: How GLPs Enhance the Quality of Regulated and Non-Regulated Toxicology

October 18, 2016
This one-hour webinar, led by IIVS Director of Quality and Compliance, introduces some of the concepts of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) designed to promote study and data integrity within an in vitro toxicology framework. Applying these concepts within your own laboratory should aid in production of robust, repeatable studies. View Slides...

LuSens

August 24, 2016
The LuSens assay is a “me-too” assay which addresses the cellular event of keratinocyte activation, similar to the KeratinoSens assay (OECD 442D).  It is a reporter gene bioassay using a human keratinocyte cell line.  IIVS participated in an inter-laboratory study led by BASF to assess the transferability, reproducibility, and accuracy of the method.  The results demonstrated an accuracy of greater than 80% in identifying skin sensitizers.  The study was published in Toxicology in Vitro in 2016.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...

Direct Peptide Reactivity Activation Assay (DPRA, OECD 442C)

August 24, 2016
The DPRA is an in chemico assay that identifies dermal sensitizers based on their reactivity with synthetic peptides containing either lysine or cysteine. The assay models the first key event, protein reactivity, in the skin sensitization AOP. Through collaboration with the method developers at Procter & Gamble, IIVS scientists received training, successfully demonstrated regulatory-required proficiency, and are offering the assay as a commercial service. IIVS is currently exploring the use of the OECD approved DPRA method (OECD 442C) in combination with other assays, including...

KeratinoSens (OECD 442D)

August 24, 2016
The KeratinoSensTM assay is a cell-based reporter gene assay which identifies skin sensitizers by measuring the induction of luciferase under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE) derived from the human AKR1C2 gene. In the proposed Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) leading to skin sensitization, this method addresses the second key event, gene expression in keratinocytes associated with the antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE)-dependent pathway. The IIVS laboratory participated in the validation studies led by Givaudan to assess the KeratinoSensTM assay which demonstrated...

Next Generation Tobacco Products

August 24, 2016
IIVS has a long-standing history of working with various industries to help establish or utilize in vitro models for the prediction of risk and the assessment of products under development. With the Food and Drug Administration extending its authority to all tobacco products (including e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah) the tobacco industry is faced with the task of assessing product safety for product development and regulatory submission. Further, the manufacture of tobacco products may entail risk to workers that come in...

Fragrance & Flavors

August 24, 2016
Exposure to fragrance chemicals is most commonly by direct skin contact. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to fragrance ingredients is most often caused by cosmetic products, such as perfumes, deodorants, and aftershave products. Cosmetic fragrance ingredients should be assessed for exposure damage including skin sensitization (ACD), phototoxicity, skin irritation (irritant contact dermatitis), and respiratory irritation and sensitization. At IIVS, we have pre-clinical testing programs to address each of these endpoints to ensure the safety of fragrance ingredients.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...

Cosmetics & Personal Care

August 24, 2016
European legislation and US research activities towards ‘21st century toxicology’ are setting the standards for animal-free toxicological assessments and the cosmetics industry has been the first to feel the effects. As per EU Regulation 1223/2009, animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and finished products is currently banned in the EU, as is the marketing of finished cosmetic products and the ingredients contained therein which were tested on animals for cosmetic safety assessment purposes. These bans hold irrespective of the availability of validated...

Pharmaceutical

August 16, 2016
Pharmaceutical companies can use in vitro testing for assessing worker safety. Pharmaceutical intermediates should be evaluated to determine the primary hazards associated with them so that those involved in the manufacturing process can take necessary precautions to avoid hazardous exposures. Pharmaceutical compounds can vary widely in their physical forms, such as powders, liquids, and creams. Many in vitro assays such as those using 3-dimensional tissue constructs, and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) Assay, are suitable for testing different test...

Occupational Safety & Industrial Hygiene

July 28, 2016
Employers are required to inform workers of the hazards of the chemicals or products that they are using. Many in vitro assays are suited to accomplish this goal. As Hazard Communication is now aligned with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), assays that are approved for assigning GHS hazard categories can provide a method for properly labelling chemicals and preparing safety data sheets. Skin Corrosion assays (Reconstructed Human Epidermis (OECD TG 431) and Membrane Barrier Test (OECD TG 435)) can be used...

Agro/Petrochemical

July 28, 2016
Agricultural chemicals consist of multiple product types including fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. As a result, these chemicals can cover a wide range in the irritation spectrum, from materials that are classified as mild irritants to those that are designated as corrosive. Classification is needed for registration through organizations such as the US EPA, REACH, or Brazil ANVISA. Multiple in vitro assays have OECD test guidelines that can be used to provide GHS hazard classifications that may meet necessary testing requirements. Ocular...