IIVS, Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Testing | Ocular
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Eye Irritation Test (EIT, OECD 492)

The Eye Irritation Test (EIT) is an OECD-approved in vitro non-animal test method for identifying chemicals and mixtures that may be irritating to the corneal epithelium.. The test method utilizes an in vitro reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) model (EpiOcular™, MatTek Corp.), in an acute exposure assay to support international regulatory labeling requirements, according to...

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Assessing Corneal Recovery

Corneal recovery is a key property of ocular irritation classification schemes used in the regulatory arena. However, no current validated non-animal ocular irritation test methods or prediction tools are able to predict corneal recovery in a manner consistent with the animal tests historically employed. Whereas some efforts have been made to demonstrate recovery with in...

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NociOcular Eye Sting

Many personal care and cosmetic products accidentally contact the eye, which is very sensitive to numerous compounds that would otherwise be benign when applied to the skin.  Due to the pain and stinging that is perceived, it is important for manufacturers of these products to be aware of the potential pain perceived should eye contact...

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Short Time Exposure (STE, OECD 491)

The Short Time Exposure (STE) assay, developed by Kao Corporation (Japan), is an in vitro assay used to assess acute eye irritation potential as an alternative to the traditional in vivo Draize test. The test method evaluates the cytotoxicity induced by a series of test chemical dilutions in a monolayer of rabbit corneal fibroblasts (Statens...

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CAMVA

The CAMVA is an in vitro assay that measures the presence and degree of vascular effect to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-day fertilized eggs following exposure to test article. After exposure, the CAM is examined visually for vascular hemorrhaging, capillary injection and/or ghost vessels at the test material application site. The concentration that elicits...

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Trans-Epithelial Permeability/Fluorescein Leakage (OECD 460)

The Trans-Epithelial Permeability (TEP) Assay, is a cell-based assay used to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of test chemicals by measuring the permeability of sodium fluorescein (or fluorescein leakage) through a confluent monolayer of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. The MDCK cell line is used since it forms tight junctions in a confluent monolayer similar...

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Cytosensor Microphysiometer

The Cytosensor Microphysiometer assay is an in vitro cellular toxicity test used to evaluate ocular irritancy. A microphysiometer is used to detect and monitor the extracellular changes in pH in L929 (mouse fibroblast) cells after exposure to a test material. Changes in the pH are caused by variations in the metabolic rate, measured indirectly as a function...

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Ocular Irritection (OIA)

The Ocular Irritection Assay is an in chemico eye irritation assay that detects, ranks, and predicts the corneal irritation potential of a test material. The assay assesses changes to the reagent solution (containing proteins, glycoproteins, lipids), which mimics the denaturation and disruption that occurs in corneal proteins in vivo. The test article is applied to...

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Ocular Screening

The ocular irritation potential of formulations, products, ingredients, and chemicals can be evaluated using in vitro reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, such as the EpiOcular™ (MatTek Corp.) and SkinEthic HCE (EPISKIN) organotypic 3-D tissue constructs.  Whether evaluating ultra-mild cosmetics and personal care products, or rank ordering the irritation potential of candidate formulations and ingredients,...

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BCOP (OECD 437) & Histology

The BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability) assay is an in vitro eye irritation test method developed by Gautheron et al. (1992), which uses living bovine corneal tissue, obtained as a by-product from abattoirs, to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of a test article. Types of injury caused by exposure to the test article are...

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