IIVS, Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Testing | Sensitization
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Sensitization

KeratinoSens (OECD 442D)

The KeratinoSensTM assay is a cell-based reporter gene assay that models the second key event in the Adverse Outcome Pathway for Dermal Sensitization, namely keratinocyte activation.  This approach measures the induction of luciferase under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE) derived from the human AKR1C2 gene, and can be used in a Weight of...

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Direct Peptide Reactivity Activation Assay (DPRA, OECD 442C)

The DPRA  (OECD 442C) is an in chemico assay that  models the first key event in the skin sensitization Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) - skin, protein reactivity. Compounds implicated in causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) are generally electrophilic in nature. This assay identifies dermal sensitizers based on their reactivity with synthetic peptides containing the nucleophilic amino acid residues...

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Human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT, OECD 442E)

The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) is a cell-based assay that identifies skin sensitizers by examining changes in the expression of cell surface markers (CD54 and CD86) implicated in dendritic cell activation, the third key event of the skin sensitization AOP.  Following exposure of the THP-1 human monocyte cell line to the test substance,...

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LuSens (OECD 442D)

Similar to the KeratinoSens assay (OECD 442D), also offered by IIVS, LuSens addresses the cellular event of Keratinocyte activation, the second key event that triggers the induction of skin sensitization.  It is a luciferase-assay bioassay performed in a human keratinocyte cell line.  The approach is based on evaluating the upregulation of a gene involved in...

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Integrated Testing Strategies for Skin Sensitization

Determination of skin sensitization potential is a critical endpoint in the safety assessment of raw materials, chemicals, mixtures and formulations.  Although the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Local Lymph node assay (LLNA) have historically been used to address this adverse effect, in vitro assays have been developed and validated in order to replace these...

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