• Pyknotic nuclei
  • Denuded alveoli
  • Focal/diffuse loss of epithelium
  • Squamous metaplasia
  • Calcification
  • Airway vs alveolar damage
  • Collagen deposition 
  • Loss of architecture
  • Specialty stains (IHC)
  • Metaplastic changes
  • Apoptotic/necrotic bodies
  • Loss of pseudo stratification
  • Reactive nuclear changes
  • Epithelial cell loss, thinning of layer
  • Loss of ciliation
  • Weighted scoring (e.g. CD54)
  • Specialty stains (IHC)


Histopathology plays a key role in understanding tissue response following exposure. Specific cytomorphological features can be evaluated and scored. Specialized immunohistochemical (IHC) staining can be used to identify specific markers such as activated macrophages.

Assay Type

Tissue Health

Test Systems