Pulmonary cell lines are readily available that are derived from lung tissue. Screening efforts often require rapid and cost-effective throughput to prioritize products in development. Cells lines such as Beas 2B, A549, and H292 are commonly employed as a means to make basic determinations of cytotoxicity and viability following test article exposure. Reporter cell lines (not necessarily of pulmonary origin) can answer more specific questions about effects of materials on cells, such as oxidative stress (Nrf2/ARE) and the activation on inflammatory pathways (NFκβ). These can also be multi-plexed with other endpoints to maximize return. Cell lines are most efficient and cost-effective option when screening large numbers of materials.

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