While data are still being collected and analyzed, there were at least 1,300 accidental electronic liquid (e-liquid) exposures reported as of 2013. Deaths have occurred as a result of ingestion of e-liquid with the effects being attributed primarily to nicotine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sought to regulate e-liquid through the Tobacco Control Act passed in 2009. In 2014, the FDA issued its “Deeming” proposals for public comments, which covered e-liquid manufacturing; the Final Rule giving the FDA authority to regulate e-liquids was released on May 5th, 2016. This study investigated the oral irritation of 3 different formulations of e-liquid using an in vitro time course assay in the reconstructed tissue model EpiOral™ (MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA, USA). All products were from the same manufacturer, contained 1.2% nicotine and differed only in their flavorings.
The US-FDA has regulatory authority over tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes and next generation products (NGPs) such as e-cigarettes and tobacco heating products (THPs). There is a desire by the industry, regulator and animal protection organizations to incorporate non-animal test methods for tobacco product and NGP assessment. When assessing respiratory effects in vitro, reliable exposure systems that deliver aerosols to cellular/tissue cultures at the air-liquid interface are needed.
IIVS toxicologist and study director, Emilia Costin wrote about melanocytes, responsible for producing skin color for The Cosmetic Chemist. Read article
This 13- minute training video demonstrates how to perform the BCOP assay according to the Test Guidelines set forth for the assay by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD TG 437). The video focuses on steps that are critical to the success of the assay such as handling of the isolated cornea and removal of the test material from the cornea at the conclusion of the ...
This new training video explores a cell-based method for assessing Phototoxicity — or the potential for chemicals to cause damage after being exposed to light. The method is used widely around the world by many industries, including the cosmetics and pharmaceutical sectors. Disclaimer: Please note that the procedures shown in this video were for demonstration ...
The use of non-whole animal test methods transforms the way regulatory requirements are applied in preclinical testing. Recent global regulatory initiatives emphasize the importance of transitioning to human relevant assays and test systems that do not use animals. When these methods are moved from research into the regulated arena, GLP principles must be followed. The GLPs were originally written in the 1970s, when the vast majority of regulated research was performed using animals as the test system. Current innovative, alternative test systems include ex vivo tissues, manufactured biological systems, three dimensional tissue constructs, and cell cultures maintained in dynamic flow bioreactors. Each type of alternative test system raises new quality and compliance points to consider when used within a regulatory context. Just as the applications of these methods have advanced with regulatory acceptance, the quality control and compliance of these test systems must also progress.
This poster provides a snapshot of pre-college teachers (46) within the U.S.—gauging their knowledge and familiarity of the 3Rs and non-animal testing methods (i.e. in vitro methods), initiative to address the topic in the classroom, and their students’ level of interest in the topic. While recognizing the ethical considerations related to animal experimentation, the current generation of teachers and students are also eager to understand the relevance, reliability, and reproducibility of in vitro methods as the modern wave of technologies in toxicology, and possible replacement of animal use for testing purposes. Our data indicate an education field eager to learn about new concepts that might impact our daily activities in an ethical way, and to get up to speed with advances in science.
In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed ‘modified risk’. On April 4-6, 2016, IIVS convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. This report includes the proceedings, recommendations, and outcome of the April 2016 technical workshop, including paths forward for developing and validating non-animal test methods for tobacco product smoke and next generation tobacco product aerosol/vapor exposures. Full article available to full and paid subscribers of ATLA.
Toxicology testing platforms represent the basis of the human health risk assessment process that determines whether a material or product may induce harm to humans upon exposure. Historically, safety assessment of raw ingredients or finished formulations has been performed using animal-based test methods (in vivo) that provide whole organism responses to toxicants. Due to the large number of products launched by industry continuously, modern toxicology shifted in recent years towards the use of novel, fast and reliable alternative methods, ranging from in silico to in chemico or in vitro, of which some are validated for regulatory purposes. The manuscript also addresses emerging technologies in the form of “organ/body-on-a-chip” platforms which announce to be instrumental in allowing alternative systems to in vivo models to assess systemic toxic effects induced by chemicals. Read the full article.