With a mandate to evaluate the dynamics of pulmonary exposure to inhaled materials such as tobacco-based products, researchers are employing complex, human, three-dimensional pulmonary models. Human reconstructed airway (RHuA) tissues present a platform that more closely resembles airways in vivo. Grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI), RHuA tissues offer apical and basal compartments that allow flexibility in modeling physiologically relevant exposures and provide sampling location-specific results. Read the full article.
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. Read the full article.
The constitutive color of human skin varies widely across the globe, from the very pale as in Celtic skin to the very dark present in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. There is a biologic player “hard at work” producing the pigments that generate great variations in human skin color and is the protagonist of this article. It is the melanocyte. Read the full article.
The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Read chapter.
New toxicology test methods, especially those using in vitro methods, are continually being developed. Some are used by industry for screening purposes; others are eventually validated for regulatory use. However, for a new test method to be firmly adopted by industry it must be readily available, generally through an in-house industry laboratory, an academic laboratory, or a contract research organization. Read chapter.
Source: IIVS Workshop, April 4-6, 2016 See also Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science: Workshop Proceedings, Conclusions and Paths Forward for In Vitro Model Use from our Dec. 2014 workshop.
Clippinger, AJ, Hill, E, Curren, R, Bishop, P. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (ALTEX)
Source: IIVS December 2014 Workshop See also In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products from our April 2016 workshop.
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (ALTEX)